[2] Knowing

The 4 P’s of Knowing

It’s useful to have clear mental models around the nature of learning to help us orient our practice. In the video below, I adapt a model from the cognitive scientist John Vervaeke known as “The 4 P’s of knowing.” Throughout the course, you will hear me make reference to this model. I also recommend applying this model to any other complex skill you seek to learn, as it will help you more easily find metaphors to port over to your practice.
After you have watched the video, share your reflections to #completions for credit.

[2A] The Argument Game

This mini-game will certainly become a staple of your practice, no matter what level you’re at. The idea is to optimize your sense of “Presence” by really embodying the perspective of disagreement. In this state of mind, new words and expressions will store more deeply in your procedural and episodic memory, and thus comes to you more intuitively when you’re in a real conversation.

Arena & Roles

  • Arena Two persons face-to-face, on video call or in real life.
  • Declarer States phrase aggressively
  • Negater Repeats Declarer’s phrase incredulously, restates phrase again in the negative, then declares a new sentence with modification

Goals & Constraints

  • Negater’s goal is to repeat the declarer’s phrase twice (incredulously, then in the negative), and then assert altered but related phrase.
  • Both parties need to make believe that they’re really in an argument. So you are certain of your arguments, and absolutely incredulous about your partner’s.
  • The new sentence can’t be a non-sequitor. Can’t say “he eats cheese? he doesn’t eat cheese; john buys pillows!” because that wouldn’t make sense in a real context.


  1. Characters
  2. Characters + Actions + “What does it Mean?”
  3. Characters + Actions + Objects + “What does it Mean?” + “How do you say?”
  4. Character + Action + Objects + Settings + Descriptors

Skills Developed

  • Attentiveness/Responsiveness
  • Impressionability
  • Word Familiarity
  • Grammar Accuracy & Smoothness
  • Native Self-Identification

Variables of Challenge

  • # of words/syllables/clauses
  • Speed, Spacing & Blending
  • Complexity of Vocabulary/Grammar


After you’ve played the Argument game at least once with a practice partner, post a reflection of your experience in #completions, then move on to the next lesson.
[3] Playing